Horace mann report of the massachusetts board of education essay

In Mary married airman Raymond Baxter who left to serve in England, returning to Lowell in Her daughter Judy was born September

Horace mann report of the massachusetts board of education essay

Horace Mann And The Creation Of The Common School

As families moved to take advantage of free land, the old educational patterns broke down, and new forms were generated.

As a result, Americans began to delegate more and more educational responsibility to the schools. The basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic were just the start; over the decades society has assigned many other skills previously learned in the homes to be taught in schools.

But aside from teaching knowledge and skills, reformers saw the schools as the logical place to inculcate democratic idealism.

Horace mann report of the massachusetts board of education essay

In the s universal education was an idea held by only a few visionaries; within a generation, a majority of the states had bought into this idea.

Aside from abolition, no other reform movement of the Jacksonian era had such success, and the key figure was Horace Mann. Born in Massachusetts in a Calvinist small town, Mann had little formal education as a youth, but read a lot at the town library, where he learned enough to be admitted to Brown University.

After graduation in he taught for a while, studied law and then entered politics, where he soon became a rising star in the state assembly. Then inhe shocked family and friends by taking the job of secretary to the Massachusetts Commission to Improve Education later the State Board of Educationan agency with no money or control over local schools.

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Mann's only instrument was the Annual Report he wrote, in which he set forth his vision of what education should be in a free society. Between andMann became the best-known educator in America, and the best-known American educator throughout the world. His central thesis was essentially Jeffersonian--no republic can endure unless its citizens are literate and educated.

Moreover, he strongly believed, as did the Puritans of two centuries earlier, that education should be moralistic. But the United States in the s had a greater diversity in social and economic status, as well as in religious and moral values, than had Puritan New England two centuries earlier.

To this heterogeneity, Mann wanted to introduce the "common school"--that is, a school common to all the people, that would provide a common and unifying experience. This was a radical idea in the United States in the nineteenth century, and would be a radical idea in the rest of the world until after the Second World War.

Europe continued to have a dual school system, in which the more prosperous classes were placed on a track leading to a university education, while the children of the poor were directed toward simple vocational training. Mann wanted to eliminate the religious and class distinctions implicit in this dual system.

The common school would be commonly supported, commonly attended and commonly controlled; its ultimate goal would be sociological and national unity.

Mann's faith was total. There were no limitations, at least in his mind, to what the common school could do. He believed that the traditional curriculum could be universalized, and that culture, hitherto reserved for the upper classes, could be democratized.

But the most important element in Mann's faith was that schools could preserve and sustain a democratic society. Unlike Jefferson, he did not believe that education by itself was a virtue.

Its value lay in the benefits it brought to society as well as to the individual. In the sections that follow, taken from his last Annual Report, Mann summed up his views on how an educated populace would avoid the social and economic divisions of the Old World, and how educated citizens would ensure the triumph of democratic government.

Jonathan Messerli, Horace Mann: A Biography ; Lawrence A. By means of early education, these embryos of talent may be quickened, which will solve the difficult problems of political and economical law; and by them, too, the genius may be kindled which will blaze forth in the Poets of Humanity.

Our schools, far more than they have done, may supply the Presidents and Professors of Colleges, and Superintendents of Public Instruction, all over the land; and send, not only into our sister states, but across the Atlantic, the men of practical science, to superintend the construction of the great works of art.

Here, too, may those judicial powers be developed and invigorated, which will make legal principles so clear and convincing as to prevent appeals to force; and, should the clouds of war ever lower over our country, some hero may be found,--the nursling of our schools, and ready to become the leader of our armies,--that best of all heroes, who will secure the glories of a peace, unstained by the magnificent murders of the battle-field.

Without undervaluing any other human agency, it may be safely affirmed that the Common School, improved and energized, as it can easily be, may become the most effective and benignant of all the forces of civilization.

Two reasons sustain this position. In the first place, there is a universality in its operation, which can be affirmed of no other institution whatever. If administered in the spirit of justice and conciliation, all the rising generation may be brought within the circle of its reformatory and elevating influences.

And, in the second place, the materials upon which it operates are so pliant and ductile as to be susceptible of assuming a greater variety of forms than any other earthly work of the Creator.

The inflexibility and ruggedness of the oak, when compared with the lithe sapling or the tender germ, are but feeble emblems to typify the docility of childhood, when contrasted with the obduracy and intractableness of man. It is these inherent advantages of the Common School, which, in our own State, have produced results so striking, from a system so imperfect, and an administration so feeble.

In teaching the blind, and the deaf and dumb, in kindling the latent spark of intelligence that lurks in an idiot's mind, and in the more holy work of reforming abandoned and outcast children, education has proved what it can do, by glorious experiments.Brown v.

Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, decided on May 17, , was one of the most important cases in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Linda Brown had been denied admission to an elementary school in Topeka because she was black 1 / Horace Mann Horace Mann’s reforms and ideas have had influence during his time, and now in our time on many issues. Lily, Lindy M. Zart Underwater Homes, Therese Hopkins Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East (), William Ewart Gladstone By Stroke of Sword - A Romance Taken from the Chronicles of Sir Jeremy Clephane (), Jeremy Clephane, Judas Fraser, Andrew Balfour.

Helen Adams Keller was born a healthy child in Tuscumbia, Alabama, on June 27, Her parents were Kate Adams Keller and Colonel Arthur Keller.. On her father's side she was descended from Colonel Alexander Spottswood, a colonial governor of Virginia, and on her mother's side, she was related to a number of prominent New England families.

Report No. 12 of the Massachusetts School Board () Horace Mann. The European tradition of education centered in the family rather than in schools did not take root in the United States, because the pattern of the extended family--several generations living under one roof--disappeared on the frontier.

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