A study of the basic accounting concepts and procedures underlying the organization and reporting of financial information. Topics include the accounting cycle, the preparation of financial statements, the measurement and reporting of business income, and the valuation and presentation of assets and current liabilities. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of the business and economic information generated by the accounting process and how it is used in personal and business decision making.
Definition of reproductive health Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of reproductive disease or infirmity. Reproductive health deals with the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
Implicit in this last condition are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
Reproductive health includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of life and personal relations, and not merely counselling and care related to reproduction and sexually transmitted diseases. The importance of reproductive health Reproductive health is a crucial part of general health and a central feature of human development.
It is a reflection of health during childhood, and crucial during adolescence and adulthood, sets the stage for health beyond the reproductive years for both women and men, and affects the health of the next generation.
The health of the newborn is largely a function of the mother's health and nutrition status and of her access to health care. Reproductive health is a universal concern, but is of special importance for women particularly during the reproductive years.
Although most reproductive health problems arise during the reproductive years, in old age general health continues to reflect earlier reproductive life events. Men too have reproductive health concerns and needs though their general health is affected by reproductive health to a lesser extent than is the case for women.
However, men have particular roles and responsibilities in terms of women's reproductive health because Ethical issues in abortion affecting nurses their decision-making powers in reproductive health matters. At each stage of life individual needs differ. Failure to deal with reproductive health problems at any stage in life sets the scene for later health and developmental problems.
Because reproductive health is such an important component of general health it is a prerequisite for social, economic and human development.
The highest attainable level of health is not only a fundamental human right for all, it is also a social and economic imperative because human energy and creativity are the driving forces of development.
Such energy and creativity cannot be generated by sick, tired people, and consequently a healthy and active population becomes a prerequisite of social and economic development. What is new about the concept of reproductive health Reproductive health does not start out from a list of diseases or problems - sexually transmitted diseases, maternal mortality - or from a list of programmes - maternal and child health, safe motherhood, family planning.
Reproductive health instead must be understood in the context of relationships: The most significant achievement of the Cairo Conference was to place people firmly at the centre of development efforts, as protagonists in their own reproductive health and lives rather than as objects of external interventions.
The aim of interventions is to enhance reproductive health and promote reproductive rights rather than population policies and fertility control. This implies the empowerment of women including through better access to education ; the involvement of women and young people in the development and implementation of programmes and services; reaching out to the poor, the marginalized and the excluded; and assuming greater responsibility for reproductive health on the part of men.
How this concept of reproductive health differs from existing family planning and maternal and child health programmes Programmes dealing with various components of reproductive health exist in some form almost everywhere.
But they have usually been delivered in a separate way, unconnected to programmes dealing with closely interdependent topics. For example, the objectives, design and evaluation of family planning programmes were largely driven by a demographic imperative, without due consideration to related health issues such as maternal health or STD prevention and management.
Evaluation was largely in terms of quantity rather than quality - numbers of contraceptive acceptors as opposed to the ability and opportunity to make informed decisions about reproductive health issues.
In general, such programmes exclusively targeted women, taking little account of the social, cultural and intimate realities of their reproductive lives and decision-making powers.
They tended to serve only married people, excluding, in particular, young people. Services were rarely designed to serve men even though they have reproductive health concerns of their own, particularly with regard to sexually transmitted diseases.
Moreover, the involvement of men in reproductive health is important because they have an important role to play as family decision-makers with regard to family size, family planning and use of health services. A reproductive health approach would differ from a narrow family planning approach in several ways.
It would aim to build upon what exists and at the same time to modify current narrow, vertical programmes to ones in which every opportunity is taken to offer women and men a full range of reproductive health services in a linked way.
Such programmes would recognize that dealing with one aspect of reproductive health can have synergistic effects in dealing with others. For example, management of infertility is difficult and expensive but it can be largely prevented through appropriate care during and after delivery and prevention and management of STDs.
Promotion of breast-feeding has an impact on reproductive health in many ways - it helps prevent certain postpartum problems, delays the return to fertility, may help prevent ovarian and breast cancer, and improves neonatal health.
Another important difference between existing programmes and those developed to respond to the new concept of reproductive health is the way in which people - particularly women and young people who are the most affected by reproductive health concerns - are involved in programme development, implementation and evaluation.
When women become more involved in programmes it becomes clearer that they have health concerns beyond motherhood and also that dealing with reproductive health involves a profound rethinking of the behavioural, social, gender and cultural dimensions of decision-making which affect women's reproductive lives.
What reproductive health services include The precise configuration of reproductive health needs and concerns, and the programmes and policies to address them, will vary from country to country and will depend on an assessment of each country's situation and the availability of appropriate interventions.
Globally, however, both the epidemiological data and the expressed wishes of diverse constituencies indicate that reproductive health interventions are most likely to include attention to the issues of family planning, STD prevention and management and prevention of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity.
Appropriate services must be accessible and include information, education, counselling, prevention, detection and management of health problems, care and rehabilitation.
Reproductive health strategies should be founded first and foremost on the health of individuals and families. In the operationalization of the strategies all reproductive health services must assume their responsibility to offer accessible and quality care, while ensuring respect for the individual, freedom of choice, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy in all reproductive matters.
They should focus special attention on meeting the reproductive health needs of adolescents.A major aspect of the debate over abortion concerns the use of terminology. In keeping with Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility, this research uses language that is clear and metin2sell.com, expressions such as “pro-life” and “pro-choice” are replaced by words that detail specific positions.
Guidelines on Reproductive Health ***** This document has been prepared by the Secretariat of the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on the Implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. Sep 07, · The abortion debate asks whether it can be morally right to terminate a pregnancy before normal childbirth.
Some people think that abortion is always wrong. Some think that abortion is right when.
Student loan forgiveness and loan repayment programs provide borrowers a means of having all or part of their student loan debt forgiven or repaid in exchange for work or service in specific fields or professions or following a prolonged period during which their .
To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined.
Ethical Issues In Abortion Affecting Nurses. In our everyday lives, we have to deal with a variety of different ethical metin2sell.com as individuals with our different thought processes deal and view with these issues in different ways. Abortion is one of the most controversial ethical issues within the health care metin2sell.comon is a topic that can cause .