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History[ edit ] The concept of implementation intentions originated from research on goal striving throughout the late s and s. The research also suggested that the weak intention-behavior relation is a result of people having good intentions, but failing to act on them.
Emerging research proposed the notion that successful goal attainment is in part attributable to the manner in which goal setting criteria are framed. For example, a person will perform better when set goals are challenging and specific as compared to goals that are challenging but vague known as the goal-specificity effect.
Concept[ edit ] People generally have positive intentionsbut often fail to act on them. Implementation intentions offer a practical solution for such a problem. The problems of initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior can be addressed by using the implementation intention process.
This if-then plan is a very specific approach as compared to goal intentions. A goal intention may be phrased in the following way: They are often phrased in the following way: Having formed a concrete plan involving a specific situation, this situation then becomes mentally represented and activated, leading to better perceptionattention and memory concerning the critical situation.
As a result, the chosen goal-directed behavior the then-part of the plan will be performed automatically and efficiently, without conscious effort. The automatization of the behavior in response to the future situation or cue, removes all hesitation and deliberation on the part of the decision maker when such a critical situation arises.
This also has the effect of freeing cognitive resources for other mental processing tasks, and also for avoiding goal-threatening distractions or competing goals. It is also assumed that an implementation intention, once set, will continue operating non-consciously. This process is called strategic automaticity.
Without commitment, an implementation intention will hardly have any effect on goal-directed behavior. In the phase model of action, the use of implementation intention takes place in the post-decisional phase implemental mindset, volition is the driving force of action which follows the predecisional phase deliberative mindset, motivation is the driving force of setting goals.
The basic structure of an implementation intention is as follows: Effective planning prompts guide people to consider when, where, and how they can act upon their intentions.
First, it helps people to consider logistic obstacles and develop specific tactics to navigate around them. Research shows that breaking commitments generates discomfort. John, and Michael I. Norton  suggest the following situations in which the use of planning prompts is most effective: When strong intentions already exist When these intentions are intrinsically motivated When at least some obstacles exist When no current plan exists When the risk of forgetting to act is high When the timeline for action is finite When planning will induce people to consider specific barriers to action When there is a specific future time for action When people can think specifically about implementation details When there are opportunities to share plans publicly When planning for single rather than multiple goals When there is a low likelihood that unanticipated moments for action will arise Empirical support[ edit ] Implementation intentions have been very successful in helping individuals achieve targeted and specific goals over the years, as indicated by a survey of the research.
Voting plans[ edit ] Implementation intentions can help to increase voter turnout. A study by David W. Nickerson and Todd Rogers found that voters in a high-salience election were more likely to vote when they received an implementation intentions phone call facilitating the creation of a voting plan.
In a study conducted by Katherine L. Milkman, John Beshears, James J. Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte C. Madrian randomly assigned employees at a Midwestern company received a mailing that prompted them to write down the date and time that they would get their flu shot, while the remaining employees received a letter with only the clinic information.
Those who received the plan-making letter were 4 percentage points more likely to get a flu shot. The women that were asked to create specific implementation intentions lost on average 4. The first group were given the simple goal intention to not experience fright or disgust, and were told to believe "I will not get frightened.
Disgust was selected because it is almost universally considered to be a basic emotion in the applicable literature. Fear was selected because anxiety disorderssuch as panic disorders or phobias are common, and they affect the life of many people.
The participants reported on the intensity of the elicited emotions by rating experienced arousal. Only group two, the implementation intention participants, succeeded in reducing their disgust and fear reactions compared to the other two groups.
These results support the idea that self-regulation by using simple goal intentions can run into problems when immediate and strong emotional reactivity has to be down-regulated, whereas implementation intentions appear to be an effective tool for self-regulation.
Implementation intentions inhibit the automatic activation of stereotypical beliefs and prejudicial feelings. The notion is that interactions with new acquaintances can be laden with anxiety and also decrease interest and desire for long-term contact.The Water Framework Directive /60/EC (WFD) is widely accepted as the most substantial and ambitious piece of European environmental legislation to date.
Draft 3 ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT This document gives an overview of the monitoring and evaluation framework for the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). Factors that promote or inhibit the implementation of e-health systems: an explanatory systematic review Frances S Mair a, Carl May b, Catherine O’Donnell a, Tracy Finch c, Frank Sullivan d & Elizabeth Murray e.
a. Institute of Health and WellBeing, University .
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With nearly one lakh students enrolling in Delhi Government schools each year, the city requires around new schools to meet the demand as per norms under the Right to Education Act, noted Union. About This Program. Target Population: For parents and caregivers of children from birth to age 16 Program Overview.
The overall Triple P program is a multi-tiered system of 5 levels of education and support for parents and caregivers of children and adolescents.