Scroll down to see more content Fyodor Dostoevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky was a Russian novelist, writer, and philosopher. He often explored questions of psychology, philosophy, and religion.
See also, Fyodor Dostoevsky Criticism. Acclaimed as one of the classics of modern literature for its experimental form and style, thematic complexity, and innovative depiction of character psychology, Notes from the Underground is perhaps the most influential of Dostoevsky's works. The novella consists of "notes" on the philosophy and experiences of a retired, embittered recluse living in squalor in St.
In creating the fictional author of the notes, who is commonly designated as the "underground man" by critics, Dostoevsky introduced the anti-hero into Russian fiction and firmly established the archetype of the outsider in world literature.
Yet the philosophical dimension of the novella is only one aspect of a work that also fuses sociology, psychology, and politics. Despite these complexities, Notes from the Underground is perceived as principally sounding a theme that reverberates throughout Dostoevsky's writings: Plot and Major Characters The notes of the underground man consist of two sections, "The Underground," a theoretical creed setting forth the fictional author's personal philosophy, and "Apropos of the Wet Snow," in which he recollects several experiences of his twenty-fourth year that anticipate his present condition and philosophy.
In the course of his diatribe, the fictional author reveals many traits: Although he claims that his first-person, monologic notes are not written for anyone else, he nevertheless addresses an imaginary audience and anticipates its responses, thus giving the work the tenor of dialogue. In "The Underground," the author attacks contemporary theories on the nature of humanity and refuses to submit to a life defined by laws of reason and science, which he equates with the incogitant passivity of a "piano-key.
The first incident described in "Apropos of the Wet Snow" is an ambiguous encounter with an army officer that the underground man interprets as a personal affront.
For two years the narrator plots a revenge that produces equally ambiguous results.
The author then relates another story in which he intrudes upon a dinner party held by former schoolmates and proceeds to embarrass himself by insulting the others and flaunting his averred superior intelligence.
When the party subsides, the underground man follows his former schoolmates to a brothel, where he asserts his superiority over a prostitute, Liza also transliterated as Lisawhom he manipulates with a noble speech and a lofty offer of assistance.
Three days later, Liza appears at the underground man's abode, only to realize his meanness and unhappiness.
He is humiliated at having been exposed and is unable to accept her consoling love. Shortly thereafter the notes abruptly end, with the underground man purporting that he will write no more; a comment contradicted by the heretofore silent "editor" of the notes who closes the novella by adding that the underground man "could not help going on.
In What Is To be Done? The underground man, however, attacks this triumph of science and engineering as a symbol of the absence of spontaneity and freedom. In Notes, critics have maintained, Dostoevsky showed the moral and psychological incompatibility of an autonomous personality and the purely deterministic world heralded by Chernyshevsky and other socialist radicals.
The psychological aspects of the novella have also received close attention. Scholars have termed Notes the self-revelation of a pathological personality diversely diagnosed as narcissistic, borderline psychotic, paranoid, compulsive, or repressed. Some critics have found in Dostoevsky's own troubles a basis for the autobiographical, agitated tone of his Notes.
Many have held that the novella disparages the narrow intellectualism and overrefined consciousness that Dostoevsky ascribed to Russians who were, in his estimation, contaminated by the corrupt rationalist trends of western European thought.
Still others have focused on the underground man as a social type representative of individuals unable to establish a bond with humanity: Notes has also been considered an argument for existential choice, and, similarly a protest against utilitarianism, materialism, and positivism.
Many of these diverse thematic strains tend to coalesce in the observations of critics who find at the heart of the underground man's desperation Dostoevsky's own distrust of scientific rationalism as a means of illuminating ethical problems and his deeply-felt Christian spirituality.
Such critics construe Notes as a condemnation of the spiritual malaise of Dostoevsky's era and a theological cry of despair over modern moral disintegration personified in the unredeemed figure of the underground man.
Critical Reception Notes from the Underground was a pivotal work for Dostoevsky for its inauguration of themes prominent in his later novels and its introduction of the acutely self-analytical, spiritually torn hero, who is a prototype for many other of his characters.
However, the importance of Notes extends far beyond its significance in Dostoevsky's career, as evinced in George Steiner's estimation of the novella: Chords previously unheard had been struck with admirable precision.
No other text by Dostoevsky has exerted more influence on twentieth-century thought or technique.She is the author of five books, including Dostoevsky and the Law () and Law, Literature, and Therapeutic Jurisprudence (). This blog is a rough adaptation of a section of her article, “Dostoevsky and the Therapeutic Jurisprudence Confession,” which appeared in .
Aug 29, · Dostoevsky means to show with this story that the criminal will not always be caught, but to paraphrase him the man's consience will be both his punishment and his prison. Dostoevsky can tend who have his characters ramble, and in this we can definitely see foreshadowing of what will happen.
i.e. Raskolnikov telling himself he is disgusting and vile before any crime has even been metin2sell.com: Resolved. The Nihilism of Dostoevsky Vadim Filatov (The public lecture given by in Arkhangelsk Teachers Training Institute during interuniversity scientific conference "Philological education: modern strategy and technologies") The Russian nihilism of second half of the nineteenth century received allEuropean popularity.
The main protagonist, Rodion Raskolnikov, was presented as the nihilist archetype, and through his inconsistency, inner conflict, and irrational thinking, Dostoyevsky set out to prove that nihilism as a philosophy was flawed and had no place in Russian society. Examining Dostoevsky's views on liberalism, nihilism, and socialism, as expressed in The Possessed, The Brothers Karamazov, The Diary of a Writer, and other works, the author concludes that Dostoevsky's faith in "holy Russia" was misplaced even as his vision of the violence resulting from nihilist thinking was more accurate. Dostoevsky shows the reader Raskolnikov's inner thoughts and feelings to show the contadictions of nihilism. Raskolnikov feels fear and guilt that, if he remained true .
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (/ ˌ d ɒ s t ə ˈ j ɛ f s k i, ˌ d ʌ s-/; Russian: Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский, tr. Fyódor Mikháylovich Dostoyévskiy, IPA: [ˈfʲɵdər mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ dəstɐˈjɛfskʲɪj] (listen); 11 November – 9 February ), sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.
Peter Lang LISBON PHILOSOPHICAL STUDIES us es of l a ngua ge i n i n t e r d i sc i p l i n a r y fi e l d s Paolo Stellino Nietzsche and Dostoevsky On the Verge of Nihilism The first time that Nietzsche crossed the path of Dostoevsky was in the winter of – Major Works Data Sheet Page 2 Describe the author’s style, incl narrator/point of view, metaphors/similes: Crime and Punishment is written in third-person.