The study, a shadow report on Canada's Implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, provides a detailed view of Canada's progress towards equality over the past five years. It was produced by 35 contributors, from 30 civil society, academic, Aboriginal, and human rights organizations, representing over three million members from every region of the country. According to the study, gender inequality has persisted or worsened in a number of critical areas, including violence against women, women's economic security, and the human rights of Aboriginal women and girls:
We organize ourselves into various kinds of social groupings, such as nomadic bands, villages, cities, and countries, in which we work, trade, play, reproduce, and interact in many other ways. Unlike other species, we combine socialization with deliberate changes in social behavior and organization over time.
Consequently, the patterns of human society differ from place to place and era to era and across cultures, making the social world a very complex and dynamic environment.
Insight into human behavior comes from many sources. The views presented here are based principally on scientific investigation, but it should also be recognized that literature, drama, history, philosophy, and other nonscientific disciplines contribute significantly to our understanding of ourselves.
Social scientists study human behavior from a variety of cultural, political, economic, and psychological perspectives, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. They look for consistent patterns of individual and social behavior and for scientific explanations of those patterns.
In some cases, such patterns may seem obvious once they are pointed out, although they may not have been part of how most people consciously thought about the world. This chapter covers recommendations about human society in terms of individual and group behavior, social organizations, and the processes of social change.
It is based on a particular approach to the subject: The chapter describes seven key aspects of human society: Although many of the ideas are relevant to all human societies, this chapter focuses chiefly on the social characteristics of the present-day United States.
The ways in which people develop are shaped by social experience and circumstances within the context of their inherited genetic potential. The scientific question is just how experience and hereditary potential interact in producing human behavior.
The characteristics of a child's social setting affect how he or she learns to think and behave, by means of instruction, rewards and punishment, and example. This setting includes home, school, neighborhood, and also, perhaps, local religious and law enforcement agencies.
Then there are also the child's mostly informal interactions with friends, other peers, relatives, and the entertainment and news media. How individuals will respond to all these influences, or even which influence will be the most potent, tends not to be predictable.
Furthermore, culturally induced behavior patterns, such as speech patterns, body language, and forms of humor, become so deeply imbedded in the human mind that they often operate without the individuals themselves being fully aware of them.
Every culture includes a somewhat different web of patterns and meanings: Within a large society, there may be many groups, with distinctly different subcultures associated with region, ethnic origin, or social class.
Some subcultures may arise among special social categories such as business executives and criminalssome of which may cross national boundaries such as musicians and scientists.
Fair or unfair, desirable or undesirable, social distinctions are a salient part of almost every culture. The form of the distinctions varies with place and time, sometimes including rigid castes, sometimes tribal or clan hierarchies, sometimes a more flexible social class.
Class distinctions are made chiefly on the basis of wealth, education, and occupation, but they are also likely to be associated with other subcultural differences, such as dress, dialect, and attitudes toward school and work. The class into which people are born affects what language, diet, tastes, and interests they will have as children, and therefore influences how they will perceive the social world.
Still, many people live lives very different from the norm for their class. The ease with which someone can change social class varies greatly with time and place.
Throughout most of human history, people have been almost certain to live and die in the class into which they were born. The times of greatest upward mobility have occurred when a society has been undertaking new enterprises for example, in territory or technology and thus has needed more people in higher-class occupations.
In some parts of the world today, increasing numbers of people are escaping from poverty through economic or educational opportunity, while in other parts, increasing numbers are being impoverished. What is considered to be acceptable human behavior varies from culture to culture and from time period to time period.
Every social group has generally accepted ranges of behavior for its members, with perhaps some specific standards for subgroups, such as adults and children, females and males, artists and athletes.
Unusual behaviors may be considered either merely amusing, or distasteful, or punishably criminal.
Some normal behavior in one culture may be considered unacceptable in another. For example, aggressively competitive behavior is considered rude in highly cooperative cultures. Conversely, in some subcultures of a highly competitive society, such as that of the United States, a lack of interest in competition may be regarded as being out of step.
Although the world has a wide diversity of cultural traditions, there are some kinds of behavior such as incest, violence against kin, theft, and rape that are considered unacceptable in almost all of them. The social consequences considered appropriate for unacceptable behavior also vary widely between, and even within, different societies.
Punishment of criminals ranges from fines or humiliation to imprisonment or exile, from beatings or mutilation to execution.
The form of appropriate punishment is affected by theories of its purpose to prevent or deter the individual from repeating the crime, or to deter others from committing the crime, or simply to cause suffering for its own sake in retribution.
The success of punishment in deterring crime is difficult to study, in part because of ethical limitations on experiments assigning different punishments to similar criminals, and in part because of the difficulty of holding other factors constant.Multicultural policy in Canada: A social psychological analysis J.W.
BERRY Queen's University ABSTRACT It is proposed that social psychologists in Canada have an important role to play in policy analysis .
Canadian values are the commonly shared ethical and human values of Canadians. The major political parties have claimed explicitly that they uphold these values, but use generalities to specify them.
Justin Trudeau after taking office as Prime Minister in tried to define what it means to be Canadian, saying that Canada lacks a core identity .
Building Resilience Against Terrorism is an important contribution to this partnership between citizens and Government. Executive Summary The first priority of the Government of Canada is to protect Canada and the safety and security of Canadians at home and abroad.
Table 1 profiles the collection of broader social values captured by the five pollsters, values that sustain the social order, social capital, and family and community strength of the Canadian population.
Sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society.
Social Facts The laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life. Nonetheless, the introduction of the term, and what has been called the multicultural movement, brought attention to the need for government policies to reflect the diversity of Canadian society.
The Public Response to Multiculturalism Policy. Government policies of multiculturalism have been viewed with hostility and suspicion by many.